Initially, pharmacists were involved in the dispensing and preparation of the drugs. They were present behind the counter with their main purpose being preparing, packing and prescribing of drugs. Today the job role of Pharmacists have evolved from pharmacy shops to an integrated part of the health care where they are involved in providing safe and effective medicines and work alongside with physicians in providing better treatment and care. One of the areas of pharmacist assistance in clinical care review.
Clinical care review is the process of examining potential errors or gaps in medical care in order to improve future training. This goes by many different names including peer review, adverse event review, sentinel event review, and root cause analysis.
The pharmacist clinical review process is a critical aspect of healthcare that involves pharmacists reviewing and evaluating patient medication regimens to ensure that they are safe, effective, and appropriate. This process is crucial for identifying and addressing any potential problems or issues with a patient’s medications, such as drug interactions, inappropriate dosing, or prescribing errors along with optimizing the impact of medicines. Medication review is an essential component of medicine management for detecting and reducing medical errors and optimizing medical treatment. Due to their clinical knowledge and expertise, pharmacists are the ideal choice to undertake medication reviews.
The process of conducting a pharmacist clinical review typically begins with the pharmacist reviewing a patient’s demographics, medical history, including information on their current medications, allergies, and any other relevant health conditions. The pharmacist will also consider the patient’s age, gender, weight, and other factors that may affect the safety and effectiveness of the medications along with cost–benefit analysis. The pharmacist then correlates the Pt’s clinical response to his laboratory data to access the treatment outcome and evaluates the need for change in regimen if any.
Once the pharmacist has gathered all of the necessary information, they will conduct a thorough review of the patient’s medication regimen, taking into account the patient’s overall health status and any potential drug interactions or contraindications. This may involve reviewing the prescribing information for each medication, as well as consulting with other healthcare professionals, such as the patient’s primary care provider or specialists.
1. Treatment without indication
1. Treatment without indication – where a medication is being prescribed to a patient without any need of it. For Example:-A patient suffering from kidney failure is being prescribed benzodiazepines.
b)Drug-food/beverage interactions – result from drugs reacting with foods or beverages. For Example:-mixing alcohol with some drugs may cause you to feel tired or slow your reactions.
c)Drug-condition interactions – may occur when an existing medical condition makes certain drugs potentially harmful. For Example:-if you have high blood pressure you could experience an unwanted reaction if you take a nasal decongestant.
If the pharmacist identifies any issues with a patient’s medication regimen, they will work with the patient and their healthcare team to develop a plan to address these issues. This may involve adjusting the dosage or frequency of medications, switching to alternative medications, or discontinuing medications that are no longer necessary. In addition to identifying and addressing issues with medication regimens, pharmacists also play a crucial role in educating patients about their medications, Life style modifications and dietary habits. This may involve providing information on how to properly take the medications, potential side effects, and any necessary precautions to be taken. Along with improving patient’s understanding of the disease and the drugs they improve their medication adherence and thus successfully improving their condition. They also give advices on life style modifications and dietary changes that can be made to have a better outcome of the treatment.
As we see Pharmacists involve more with the patients in helping them understand their disease and the importance of taking their medications regularly and with their wide knowledge on different aspect of patient care, pharmacists can clear patient’s doubts if any. In certain cases, if a patient is facing any issues in regards to the present cost of the therapy pharmacists can work with the physician in finding an appropriate drug that is of lesser cost with similar benefit. Thus reducing the cost burden on the patient and improving his adherence. Pharmacists are also widely available to the general public which makes pharmacists easily approachable healthcare professionals to whom the Patient’s can come and ask any questions related to the therapy or any doubts in general in relation to their health.
Pharmacists are also involved in community health care by making people aware of the common communicable diseases and what they can do to prevent them, they can also educate them on the importance of sanitation, maintenance of proper hygiene and importance of getting their kids vaccinated.
Pharmacists are involved in therapeutic evaluation of patients with lifestyle diseases or patients in ICU or in patients suffering requiring accurate monitoring of the disease – patients suffering from kidney or liver or heart damage where the dosages given need to be carefully monitored for an adverse event or therapy failure.
Today the world is shifting towards Patient-centric medical care by placing patient at top of any therapy being given. That means it requires health care professionals that has wide range of knowledge with drugs, their kinetics, actions and effects alongside their possible interactions and adverse effects, With all this taken into consideration pharmacists come into the picture. Pharmacists work in coordination with the physicians in improving Patient’s health, reducing disease occurrence and hospital stay, reducing medication errors and any complications.
Thus, the pharmacist clinical review process is an essential aspect of healthcare that helps to ensure that patients are receiving safe and effective medications. By carefully reviewing and evaluating medication regimens, pharmacists can identify and address any potential problems, improve patient outcomes, and reduce the risk of adverse effects and other complications along with reducing the morbidity and mortality in patients.
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